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AFF Training Resources

USPA A-License Oral Exam Study Guide:

 cloud clearance and visibility requirements (table in FAR 105.17)
 equipment operation and maintenance (SIM Section 5-3)
 wing loading and its effects (SIM Section 4, ISP Category C, B.1; and SIM Section 5-3.B)
 closing loop (SIM Section 4, ISP Category H, D.3)
 Velcro and tuck flaps (SIM Section 4, ISP Category G, D.1)
 packing and authorization to pack (FAR 105.43.a and .b)
 maintaining automatic activation devices (FAR 105.43.c)
 canopy flight (SIM Section 6-10)
 traffic patterns and collision avoidance (SIM Section 5-1.H)
 braked turns and obstacle avoidance (SIM Section 5-1.F)
 low turn avoidance and recovery (SIM Section 5-1.I)
 downwind landing procedures (SIM Section 4, ISP Category C, B.7)
 obstacle landing emergency and recovery procedures (SIM Section 5-1.F)

 aircraft procedures (SIM Section 5-6)
 during jump run and exit to observe balance limits (SIM Section 5-6)
 distance between groups to maintain separation (SIM Section 5-7.C)
 aircraft emergency procedures (SIM Section 5-1.D)
 group freefall and breakoff recommendations (SIM Section 6-1; and SIM Section 6-2.E.5)
 parachute emergency procedures, including deployment malfunctions, cutaway decide-and-act altitude, and two-canopies-deployed scenarios (SIM Section 5-1.E)
 accountability for FAR compliance (SIM Section 9-1)
 All sections of FAR Part 91 listed that pertain to skydiving (including 91.791.107.a.1 through .3, and 91.211.a)
 FAR Part 65 Sections 65.125, 65.127, 65.129, 65.131, and 65.133
 FAR Part 105 (including Sections 105.13, 105.15, 105.17, 105.23, and 105.43)

Solo Student Training Videos

Category A Freefall Skills

Cat A, B, & C Canopy Drills

Beyond the First Jump

Category B Freefall Skills

Category C-1 Freefall Skills

Category C-2 Freefall Skills

Category D-1 Freefall Skills

Category D-1 Canopy Drills

Category D-2 Freefall Skills

Category D-2 Canopy Drills

Category E-1 Freefall Skills

Category E Canopy Drills

Category E-2 Freefall Skills

Category F Tracking Skills

Category F Canopy Drills

Category G Solo Floater Exit

Category G Solo Floater Exit

Category G Forward and Backward Movement

Category G Belly Backslide
Grip Taking Basics

Category G-1 Freefall Skills

Breakoff After Group Freefall
Tracking After Breakoff

Category G Canopy Drills

Category G Upward and Downward Movement

Category G-2 Freefall Skills

Category G-3 Freefall Skills

Category H Solo Diving Exit

Category H Solo Diving Exit

Category H Diving and Docking Skills Training

Category H Front Riser Applications

Category H Canopy Drills

A-License Check-Dive

Malfunctions and Emergency Procedures

Unable to Locate Main Deployment Handle

Unable to Pull the Main Deployment Handle
Horseshoe and Premature Container Opening
Pilot Chute Hesitation (Burble)
Pilot Chute in Tow (Container Lock)
Bag Lock
Line Twist(s)
Premature Brake Release (Toggle Fire)
Slider Hang Up (Stuck Slider)
Tension Knots (Stabilizer Hang Up)
Line Over
End Cell Closure
Broken Line(s)
Canopy Damage
Pilot Chute Over and Under the Nose
Deflated and Partially Inflated Second Canopy
Main-Reserve Entanglement

Skydiving Abbreviations, Terms, and Colloquialisms

AAD Abbrev. n, “Automatic Activation Device”. A altitude sensing device used to automatically activate the opening sequence for a parachute. Most commonly refers to their application to sport reserve parachutes, but also used in other non-sport scenarios such as ejection seats, etc.
AFF Abbrev. n, “Accelerated FreeFall”. A training program for first jump students where the skydiving skills development rate is accelerated over that of the older static line program.
Boogie n, A gathering of jumpers for the purposes of jumping and socializing. Typically, boogies will have large aircraft, unusual aircraft (balloons, helicopters), special events (record attempts), or some sort of competition as a focal point to attract jumpers from widely diverse regions.
Canopy n, parachute.
CFS Abbrev., “Canopy Formation Skydiving”. The new “official” term for a discipline of skydiving in which jumpers *under canopy* fly their parachutes together to form various formations. However, most skydivers still refer to it as “CRW”. (See CRW.)
CRW Abbrev., “Canopy Relative Work”. Describes the maneuvering done by jumpers *under canopy* to fly their parachutes together to form various formations. Sometimes referred to as CReW (Crew). See CFS.
DZ Abbrev. n, “Drop Zone”. A place where parachuting operations take place. This is may be a designated area, or frequently, a commercial business which supplies aircraft, instruction, gear sales and services.
Flare v, to pull down on both of the canopy’s steering toggles in order to lower decent rate and forward speed just prior to landing. The forward speed is traded-off for lift. A flare performed too late has no effect, a flare performed too early can result in a stall in which the canopy looses forward speed and drops straight down. A correctly performed flare results in an exceptionally soft landing.
FS Abbrev., “Formation Skydiving”. The new “official” term for a discipline of skydiving in which two or more jumpers fly relative to each other *in freefall* in order to form various formations. However, most skydivers refer to it as Relative Work, or “RW.” (See RW.)
Hook turn n, A high-speed turn with either the steering toggles or the front risers performed at very low altitude in order to build up speed before landing. See “turf surf.”
JM Abbrev. n, “JumpMaster”. A jumper trained and certified to supervise students and/or novices during their jump.
Main n, the primary parachute.
Opening shock n, The force experienced by the jumper due to the sudden deceleration from terminal velocity due to the deployment of a parachute.
RW Abbrev., “Relative Work”. Describes the freefall maneuvering whereby two or more jumpers fly relative to each other *in freefall* in order to form various formations. See FS.
Reserve n, the secondary, or backup, parachute.
Round n, a class of parachutes designed to simply decelerate a body in a fluid medium. The classic parachute.
Square n, a class of parachutes designed to inflate and take the shape of an airfoil. These are more accurately rectangular in shape and are semi-rigid wings.
Turf surf v, (also, to “surf it”) a high-speed style of landing. The jumper builds up speed (see Hook Turn) and then flares mere moments before touchdown, resulting in a spectacular landing in which the jumper skims mere inches above the ground at 30-40mph, for up to 100 yards. Or, if the jumper flares too late, resulting in a spectacular landing in which the jumper impacts the ground, leading to medical bills, orthopedic surgery, and/or death. Attempt this maneuver at your own risk!
USPA Abbrev. n, “United States Parachute Association”.
Whuffo Colloquialism, n, A person who is not a skydiver (from the often-asked phrase “Whuffo you jump out of them airplanes?”).

Freefall Hand Signals



Check Arms

Circle of Awareness


Extend Legs

Legs In

Looking Good

Practice Touch